SPARTA Countermeasures

Countermeasures represent security concepts and classes of technologies that can be used to prevent a technique or sub-technique from being successfully executed. The below table view not only describes the countermeasure, it also provides informative references to the NIST Risk Management Framework (RMF) revision 5 control identifier. Each NIST control ID is a hyperlink to more information on the control itself. This mapping is meant to be informative and provide traceability to common standards that are being leveraged within the space community. In addition to the table view, there is a Defense-in-Depth (DiD) view that provides the countermeasures overlaid onto Aerospace's DiD model for space systems which was discussed in TOR 2021-01333 REV A. When selecting a specific countermeasure the following information will be displayed: description of the countermeasure, the best segment for countermeasure deployment, any informative references as well as any techniques that the countermeasure addresses. The mapping to countermeasure to technique(s) are a one to many relationship. For the best segment for countermeasure deployment, this is meant to articulate the ideal place to deploy the countermeasure leveraging the following choices: space segment, the development environment, or the ground segment. The space segment is considered to be the spacecraft or spacecrafts if within a constellation. The development segment captures the factories, hardware foundries, the software development organization as well as the Assembly, Test and Launch Operations (ATLO) facilities. The ground segment is meant to capture the operational and maintenance areas for the ground system. This includes the mission operations environments, the antenna environments, the back haul networks, as well as any management network segments for vendors or commercial entities.

Please view the blog post A Look into SPARTA Countermeasures to learn more about SPARTA’s approach to countermeasures and its goal to ensure space system engineers are informed on security principles to mitigate adversary TTPs.


ID Name Description NIST Rev5 Controls D3FEND ISO 27001
CM0000 Countermeasure Not Identified This technique is a result of utilizing TTPs to create an impact and the applicable countermeasures are associated with the TTPs leveraged to achieve the impact None None None
CM0001 Protect Sensitive Information Organizations should look to identify and properly classify mission sensitive design/operations information (e.g., fault management approach) and apply access control accordingly. Any location (ground system, contractor networks, etc.) storing design information needs to ensure design info is protected from exposure, exfiltration, etc. Space system sensitive information may be classified as Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI) or Company Proprietary. Space system sensitive information can typically include a wide range of candidate material: the functional and performance specifications, any ICDs (like radio frequency, ground-to-space, etc.), command and telemetry databases, scripts, simulation and rehearsal results/reports, descriptions of uplink protection including any disabling/bypass features, failure/anomaly resolution, and any other sensitive information related to architecture, software, and flight/ground /mission operations. This could all need protection at the appropriate level (e.g., unclassified, CUI, proprietary, classified, etc.) to mitigate levels of cyber intrusions that may be conducted against the project’s networks. Stand-alone systems and/or separate database encryption may be needed with controlled access and on-going Configuration Management to ensure changes in command procedures and critical database areas are tracked, controlled, and fully tested to avoid loss of science or the entire mission. Sensitive documentation should only be accessed by personnel with defined roles and a need to know. Well established access controls (roles, encryption at rest and transit, etc.) and data loss prevention (DLP) technology are key countermeasures. The DLP should be configured for the specific data types in question. AC-25 | AC-3(11) | AC-4(23) | AC-4(25) | AC-4(6) | CA-3 | CM-12 | CM-12(1) | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | PM-11 | PM-17 | SA-3 | SA-3(1) | SA-3(2) | SA-4(12) | SA-4(12) | SA-5 | SA-8 | SA-8(19) | SA-9(7) | SC-16 | SC-16(1) | SC-8(1) | SC-8(3) | SI-12 | SI-21 | SI-23 | SR-12 | SR-7 D3-AI | D3-AVE | D3-NVA | D3-CH | D3-CBAN | D3-CTS | D3-PA | D3-FAPA | D3-SAOR | A.8.4 | A.8.11 | A.8.10 | A.5.14 | A.8.21 | A.5.8 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.33 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.37 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.33 | A.8.10 | A.5.22
CM0002 COMSEC A component of cybersecurity to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. COMSEC includes cryptographic security, transmission security, emissions security, and physical security of COMSEC material. It is imperative to utilize secure communication protocols with strong cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure of, and detect changes to, information during transmission. Systems should also maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during preparation for transmission and during reception. Spacecraft should not employ a mode of operations where cryptography on the TT&C link can be disabled (i.e., crypto-bypass mode). The cryptographic mechanisms should identify and reject wireless transmissions that are deliberate attempts to achieve imitative or manipulative communications deception based on signal parameters. AC-17 | AC-17(1) | AC-17(10) | AC-17(10) | AC-17(2) | AC-18 | AC-18(1) | AC-2(11) | AC-3(10) | CA-3 | IA-4(9) | IA-5 | IA-5(7) | IA-7 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | SA-8(18) | SA-8(19) | SA-9(6) | SC-10 | SC-12 | SC-12(1) | SC-12(2) | SC-12(3) | SC-12(6) | SC-13 | SC-16(3) | SC-28(1) | SC-28(3) | SC-7 | SC-7(10) | SC-7(11) | SC-7(18) | SC-7(5) | SC-8(1) | SC-8(3) | SI-10 | SI-10(3) | SI-10(5) | SI-10(6) | SI-19(4) | SI-3(8) D3-ET | D3-MH | D3-MAN | D3-MENCR | D3-NTF | D3-ITF | D3-OTF | D3-CH | D3-DTP | D3-NTA | D3-CAA | D3-DNSTA | D3-IPCTA | D3-NTCD | D3-RTSD | D3-PHDURA | D3-PMAD | D3-CSPP | D3-MA | D3-SMRA | D3-SRA | A.5.14 | A.6.7 | A.8.1 | A.8.16 | A.5.14 | A.8.1 | A.8.20 | A.5.14 | A.8.21 | A.5.16 | A.5.17 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.8.16 | A.8.20 | A.8.22 | A.8.23 | A.8.26 | A.8.12 | A.5.33 | A.8.20 | A.8.24 | A.8.24 | A.8.26 | A.5.31 | A.5.33 | A.8.11
CM0003 TEMPEST The spacecraft should protect system components, associated data communications, and communication buses in accordance with TEMPEST controls to prevent side channel / proximity attacks. Encompass the spacecraft critical components with a casing/shielding so as to prevent access to the individual critical components. PE-19 | PE-19(1) | PE-21 | SC-8(3) D3-PH | D3-RFS | A.7.5 | A.7.8 | A.8.12
CM0004 Development Environment Security In order to secure the development environment, the first step is understanding all the devices and people who interact with it. Maintain an accurate inventory of all people and assets that touch the development environment. Ensure strong multi-factor authentication is used across the development environment, especially for code repositories, as threat actors may attempt to sneak malicious code into software that's being built without being detected. Use zero-trust access controls to the code repositories where possible. For example, ensure the main branches in repositories are protected from injecting malicious code. A secure development environment requires change management, privilege management, auditing and in-depth monitoring across the environment. AC-17 | AC-18 | AC-20(5) | AC-3(11) | AC-3(13) | AC-3(15) | CA-8 | CA-8(1) | CA-8(1) | CM-11 | CM-14 | CM-2(2) | CM-3(2) | CM-3(7) | CM-3(8) | CM-4(1) | CM-4(1) | CM-5(6) | CM-7(8) | CM-7(8) | CP-2(8) | MA-7 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | PL-8(2) | PM-30 | PM-30(1) | RA-3(1) | RA-3(2) | RA-5 | RA-5(2) | RA-9 | SA-10 | SA-10(4) | SA-11 | SA-11 | SA-11(1) | SA-11(2) | SA-11(2) | SA-11(4) | SA-11(5) | SA-11(5) | SA-11(6) | SA-11(7) | SA-11(7) | SA-11(7) | SA-11(8) | SA-15 | SA-15(3) | SA-15(5) | SA-15(7) | SA-15(8) | SA-17 | SA-3 | SA-3 | SA-3(1) | SA-3(2) | SA-4(12) | SA-4(3) | SA-4(3) | SA-4(5) | SA-4(5) | SA-4(9) | SA-8 | SA-8(19) | SA-8(30) | SA-8(31) | SA-9 | SC-38 | SI-2 | SI-2(6) | SI-7 | SR-1 | SR-1 | SR-11 | SR-2 | SR-2(1) | SR-3 | SR-3(2) | SR-4 | SR-4(1) | SR-4(2) | SR-4(3) | SR-4(4) | SR-5 | SR-5 | SR-5(2) | SR-6 | SR-6(1) | SR-6(1) | SR-7 D3-AI | D3-AVE | D3-SWI | D3-HCI | D3-NNI | D3-OAM | D3-AM | D3-OM | D3-DI | D3-MFA | D3-CH | D3-OTP | D3-BAN | D3-PA | D3- FAPA | D3- DQSA | D3-IBCA | D3-PCSV | D3-PSMD | A.8.4 | A.5.14 | A.6.7 | A.8.1 | A.5.14 | A.8.1 | A.8.20 | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.31 | A.8.19 | A.5.30 | A.5.8 | 4.4 | 6.2 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | 10.2 | A.8.8 | A.5.22 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.33 | A.8.28 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.9 | A.8.28 | A.8.30 | A.8.32 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.8.28 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.28 | A.8.25 | A.8.27 | A.6.8 | A.8.8 | A.8.32 | 5.2 | 5.3 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.1 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.19 | A.5.31 | A.5.36 | A.5.37 | A.5.19 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.8.30 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.5.21 | A.8.30 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.5.23 | A.8.29 | A.5.22 | A.5.22
CM0005 Ground-based Countermeasures This countermeasure is focused on the protection of terrestrial assets like ground networks and development environments/contractor networks, etc. Traditional detection technologies and capabilities would be applicable here. Utilizing resources from NIST CSF to properly secure these environments using identify, protect, detect, recover, and respond is likely warranted. Additionally, NISTIR 8401 may provide resources as well since it was developed to focus on ground-based security for space systems (https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2022/NIST.IR.8401.ipd.pdf). Furthermore, the MITRE ATT&CK framework provides IT focused TTPs and their mitigations https://attack.mitre.org/mitigations/enterprise/. Several recommended NIST 800-53 Rev5 controls are provided for reference when designing ground systems/networks. AC-1 | AC-10 | AC-11 | AC-11(1) | AC-12 | AC-12(1) | AC-14 | AC-16 | AC-16(6) | AC-17 | AC-17 | AC-17(1) | AC-17(10) | AC-17(2) | AC-17(3) | AC-17(4) | AC-17(6) | AC-17(9) | AC-18 | AC-18 | AC-18(1) | AC-18(3) | AC-18(4) | AC-18(5) | AC-19 | AC-19(5) | AC-2 | AC-2 | AC-2(1) | AC-2(11) | AC-2(12) | AC-2(13) | AC-2(2) | AC-2(3) | AC-2(4) | AC-2(9) | AC-20 | AC-20(1) | AC-20(2) | AC-20(3) | AC-20(5) | AC-21 | AC-22 | AC-3 | AC-3(11) | AC-3(13) | AC-3(15) | AC-3(4) | AC-4 | AC-4(23) | AC-4(24) | AC-4(25) | AC-4(26) | AC-4(31) | AC-4(32) | AC-6 | AC-6(1) | AC-6(10) | AC-6(2) | AC-6(3) | AC-6(5) | AC-6(8) | AC-6(9) | AC-7 | AC-8 | AT-2(4) | AT-2(4) | AT-2(5) | AT-2(6) | AT-3 | AT-3(2) | AT-4 | AU-10 | AU-11 | AU-12 | AU-12(1) | AU-12(3) | AU-14 | AU-14(1) | AU-14(3) | AU-2 | AU-3 | AU-3(1) | AU-4 | AU-4(1) | AU-5 | AU-5(1) | AU-5(2) | AU-5(5) | AU-6 | AU-6(1) | AU-6(3) | AU-6(4) | AU-6(5) | AU-6(6) | AU-7 | AU-7(1) | AU-8 | AU-9 | AU-9(2) | AU-9(3) | AU-9(4) | CA-3 | CA-3 | CA-3(6) | CA-3(7) | CA-7 | CA-7(1) | CA-7(6) | CA-8 | CA-8(1) | CA-8(1) | CA-9 | CM-10(1) | CM-11 | CM-11 | CM-11(2) | CM-11(3) | CM-12 | CM-12(1) | CM-14 | CM-2 | CM-2(2) | CM-2(3) | CM-2(7) | CM-3 | CM-3(1) | CM-3(2) | CM-3(4) | CM-3(5) | CM-3(6) | CM-3(7) | CM-3(7) | CM-3(8) | CM-4 | CM-5(1) | CM-5(5) | CM-6 | CM-6(1) | CM-6(2) | CM-7 | CM-7(1) | CM-7(2) | CM-7(3) | CM-7(5) | CM-7(8) | CM-7(8) | CM-7(9) | CM-8 | CM-8(1) | CM-8(2) | CM-8(3) | CM-8(4) | CM-9 | CP-10 | CP-10(2) | CP-10(4) | CP-2 | CP-2 | CP-2(2) | CP-2(5) | CP-2(8) | CP-3(1) | CP-4(1) | CP-4(2) | CP-4(5) | CP-8 | CP-8(1) | CP-8(2) | CP-8(3) | CP-8(4) | CP-8(5) | CP-9 | CP-9(1) | CP-9(2) | CP-9(3) | IA-11 | IA-12 | IA-12(1) | IA-12(2) | IA-12(3) | IA-12(4) | IA-12(5) | IA-12(6) | IA-2 | IA-2(1) | IA-2(12) | IA-2(2) | IA-2(5) | IA-2(6) | IA-2(8) | IA-3 | IA-3(1) | IA-4 | IA-4(9) | IA-5 | IA-5(1) | IA-5(13) | IA-5(14) | IA-5(2) | IA-5(7) | IA-5(8) | IA-6 | IA-7 | IA-8 | IR-2 | IR-2(2) | IR-2(3) | IR-3 | IR-3(1) | IR-3(2) | IR-3(3) | IR-4 | IR-4(1) | IR-4(10) | IR-4(11) | IR-4(11) | IR-4(12) | IR-4(13) | IR-4(14) | IR-4(3) | IR-4(4) | IR-4(5) | IR-4(6) | IR-4(7) | IR-4(8) | IR-5 | IR-5(1) | IR-6 | IR-6(1) | IR-6(2) | IR-7 | IR-7(1) | IR-8 | MA-2 | MA-3 | MA-3(1) | MA-3(2) | MA-3(3) | MA-4 | MA-4(1) | MA-4(3) | MA-4(6) | MA-4(7) | MA-5(1) | MA-6 | MA-7 | MP-2 | MP-3 | MP-4 | MP-5 | MP-6 | MP-6(3) | MP-7 | PE-3(7) | PL-10 | PL-11 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | PL-8(2) | PL-9 | PL-9 | PM-11 | PM-16(1) | PM-17 | PM-30 | PM-30(1) | PM-31 | PM-32 | RA-10 | RA-3(1) | RA-3(2) | RA-3(2) | RA-3(3) | RA-3(4) | RA-5 | RA-5(10) | RA-5(11) | RA-5(2) | RA-5(4) | RA-5(5) | RA-7 | RA-9 | RA-9 | SA-10 | SA-10(1) | SA-10(2) | SA-10(7) | SA-11 | SA-11 | SA-11(2) | SA-11(4) | SA-11(7) | SA-11(9) | SA-15 | SA-15(3) | SA-15(7) | SA-17 | SA-17 | SA-2 | SA-2 | SA-22 | SA-3 | SA-3 | SA-3(1) | SA-3(2) | SA-3(2) | SA-4 | SA-4 | SA-4(1) | SA-4(10) | SA-4(12) | SA-4(2) | SA-4(3) | SA-4(3) | SA-4(5) | SA-4(5) | SA-4(7) | SA-4(9) | SA-4(9) | SA-5 | SA-8 | SA-8 | SA-8(14) | SA-8(15) | SA-8(18) | SA-8(21) | SA-8(22) | SA-8(23) | SA-8(24) | SA-8(29) | SA-8(9) | SA-9 | SA-9 | SA-9(1) | SA-9(2) | SA-9(6) | SA-9(7) | SC-10 | SC-12 | SC-12(1) | SC-12(6) | SC-13 | SC-15 | SC-16(2) | SC-16(3) | SC-18(1) | SC-18(2) | SC-18(3) | SC-18(4) | SC-2 | SC-2(2) | SC-20 | SC-21 | SC-22 | SC-23 | SC-23(1) | SC-23(3) | SC-23(5) | SC-24 | SC-28 | SC-28(1) | SC-28(3) | SC-3 | SC-38 | SC-39 | SC-4 | SC-45 | SC-45(1) | SC-45(1) | SC-45(2) | SC-49 | SC-5 | SC-5(1) | SC-5(2) | SC-5(3) | SC-50 | SC-51 | SC-7 | SC-7(10) | SC-7(11) | SC-7(12) | SC-7(13) | SC-7(14) | SC-7(18) | SC-7(21) | SC-7(25) | SC-7(29) | SC-7(3) | SC-7(4) | SC-7(5) | SC-7(5) | SC-7(7) | SC-7(8) | SC-7(9) | SC-8 | SC-8(1) | SC-8(2) | SC-8(5) | SI-10 | SI-10(3) | SI-10(6) | SI-11 | SI-12 | SI-14(3) | SI-16 | SI-19(4) | SI-2 | SI-2(2) | SI-2(3) | SI-2(6) | SI-21 | SI-3 | SI-3 | SI-3(10) | SI-3(10) | SI-4 | SI-4(1) | SI-4(10) | SI-4(11) | SI-4(12) | SI-4(13) | SI-4(14) | SI-4(15) | SI-4(16) | SI-4(17) | SI-4(2) | SI-4(20) | SI-4(22) | SI-4(23) | SI-4(24) | SI-4(25) | SI-4(4) | SI-4(5) | SI-5 | SI-5(1) | SI-6 | SI-7 | SI-7 | SI-7(1) | SI-7(17) | SI-7(2) | SI-7(5) | SI-7(7) | SI-7(8) | SR-1 | SR-1 | SR-10 | SR-11 | SR-11 | SR-11(1) | SR-11(2) | SR-11(3) | SR-12 | SR-2 | SR-2(1) | SR-3 | SR-3(1) | SR-3(2) | SR-3(2) | SR-3(3) | SR-4 | SR-4(1) | SR-4(2) | SR-4(3) | SR-4(4) | SR-5 | SR-5 | SR-5(1) | SR-5(2) | SR-6 | SR-6(1) | SR-6(1) | SR-7 | SR-7 | SR-8 | SR-9 | SR-9(1) Nearly all D3FEND Techniques apply to Ground | 5.2 | 5.3 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.1 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.15 | A.5.31 | A.5.36 | A.5.37 | A.5.16 | A.5.18 | A.8.2 | A.8.16 | A.5.15 | A.5.33 | A.8.3 | A.8.4 | A.8.18 | A.8.20 | A.8.2 | A.8.4 | A.5.14 | A.8.22 | A.8.23 | A.8.11 | A.8.10 | A.5.15 | A.8.2 | A.8.18 | A.8.5 | A.8.5 | A.7.7 | A.8.1 | A.5.14 | A.6.7 | A.8.1 | A.8.16 | A.5.14 | A.8.1 | A.8.20 | A.5.14 | A.7.9 | A.8.1 | A.5.14 | A.7.9 | A.8.20 | A.6.3 | A.8.15 | A.8.15 | A.8.6 | A.5.25 | A.6.8 | A.8.15 | A.7.4 | A.8.17 | A.5.33 | A.8.15 | A.5.28 | A.8.15 | A.8.15 | A.8.15 | A.5.14 | A.8.21 | 9.1 | 9.3.2 | 9.3.3 | A.5.36 | 9.2.2 | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | 8.1 | 9.3.3 | A.8.9 | A.8.32 | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.19 | A.8.19 | A.5.9 | A.8.9 | A.5.2 | A.8.9 | A.8.19 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.2 | A.5.29 | A.8.1 | A.8.6 | A.5.30 | A.5.30 | A.5.29 | A.7.11 | A.5.29 | A.5.33 | A.8.13 | A.5.29 | A.5.16 | A.5.16 | A.5.16 | A.5.17 | A.8.5 | A.5.16 | A.6.3 | A.5.25 | A.5.26 | A.5.27 | A.8.16 | A.5.5 | A.6.8 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.24 | A.7.10 | A.7.13 | A.8.10 | A.8.10 | A.8.16 | A.8.10 | A.7.13 | A.5.10 | A.7.7 | A.7.10 | A.5.13 | A.5.10 | A.7.7 | A.7.10 | A.8.10 | A.5.10 | A.7.9 | A.7.10 | A.5.10 | A.7.10 | A.7.14 | A.8.10 | A.5.10 | A.7.10 | A.5.8 | A.5.7 | 4.4 | 6.2 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | 10.2 | 4.4 | 6.2 | 7.4 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | 9.1 | 9.2.2 | 10.1 | 10.2 | A.8.8 | 6.1.3 | 8.3 | 10.2 | A.5.22 | A.5.7 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.33 | 8.1 | A.5.8 | A.5.20 | A.5.23 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.8.28 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.37 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.9 | A.8.28 | A.8.30 | A.8.32 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.25 | A.8.27 | A.8.6 | A.5.14 | A.8.16 | A.8.20 | A.8.22 | A.8.23 | A.8.26 | A.8.23 | A.8.12 | A.5.10 | A.5.14 | A.8.20 | A.8.26 | A.5.33 | A.8.20 | A.8.24 | A.8.24 | A.8.26 | A.5.31 | A.5.14 | A.5.10 | A.5.33 | A.6.8 | A.8.8 | A.8.32 | A.8.7 | A.8.16 | A.8.16 | A.8.16 | A.8.16 | A.5.6 | A.8.11 | A.8.10 | 5.2 | 5.3 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.1 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.19 | A.5.31 | A.5.36 | A.5.37 | A.5.19 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.8.30 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.5.21 | A.8.30 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.5.23 | A.8.29 | A.5.22 | A.5.22
CM0006 Cloaking Safe-mode Attempt to cloak when in safe-mode and ensure that when the system enters safe-mode it does not disable critical security features. Ensure basic protections like encryption are still being used on the uplink/downlink to prevent eavesdropping. CP-12 | CP-2 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | SC-13 | SC-16 | SC-24 | SC-8 D3-PH | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.2 | A.5.29 | A.8.1 | A.5.8 | A.5.10 | A.5.14 | A.8.20 | A.8.26 | A.8.24 | A.8.26 | A.5.31
CM0007 Software Version Numbers When using COTS or Open-Source, protect the version numbers being used as these numbers can be cross referenced against public repos to identify Common Vulnerability Exposures (CVEs) and exploits available. AC-3(11) | CM-2 | SA-11 | SA-5 | SA-8(29) D3-AI | D3-SWI | A.8.4 | A.8.9 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.37 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0008 Security Testing Results As penetration testing and vulnerability scanning is a best practice, protecting the results from these tests and scans is equally important. These reports and results typically outline detailed vulnerabilities and how to exploit them. As with countermeasure CM0001, protecting sensitive information from disclosure to threat actors is imperative. AC-3(11) | CA-8 | CA-8(1) | CA-8(1) | CM-4 | CP-4 | IR-3 | IR-3(1) | IR-3(2) | IR-6(2) | RA-5 | RA-5(11) | SA-11 | SA-11(3) | SA-11(5) | SA-4(5) | SA-5 D3-AI | D3-AVE | A.8.4 | A.8.9 | A.5.29 | A.5.30 | A.8.8 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.37 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0009 Threat Intelligence Program A threat intelligence program helps an organization generate their own threat intelligence information and track trends to inform defensive priorities and mitigate risk. Leverage all-source intelligence services or commercial satellite imagery to identify and track adversary infrastructure development/acquisition. Countermeasures for this attack fall outside the scope of the mission in the majority of cases. PM-16 | PM-16(1) | PM-16(1) | RA-10 | RA-3 | RA-3(2) | RA-3(3) | SA-3 | SA-8 | SI-4(24) | SR-8 D3-PH | D3-AH | D3-NM | D3-NVA | D3-SYSM | D3-SYSVA | A.5.7 | A.5.7 | 6.1.2 | 8.2 | 9.3.2 | A.8.8 | A.5.7 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28
CM0010 Update Software Perform regular software updates to mitigate exploitation risk. Software updates may need to be scheduled around operational down times. Release updated versions of the software/firmware systems incorporating security-relevant updates, after suitable regression testing, at a frequency no greater than mission-defined frequency [i.e., 30 days]. Ideally old versions of software are removed after upgrading but restoration states (i.e., gold images) are recommended to remain on the system. CM-3(2) | CM-3(7) | CM-3(8) | CM-4 | CM-4(1) | CM-5(6) | CM-7(5) | SA-10(4) | SA-11 | SA-3 | SA-8 | SA-8(30) | SA-8(31) | SA-8(8) | SA-9 | SI-2 | SI-2(6) | SI-2(6) | SI-7 D3-SU | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.31 | A.8.19 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.6.8 | A.8.8 | A.8.32
CM0011 Vulnerability Scanning Vulnerability scanning is used to identify known software vulnerabilities (excluding custom-developed software - ex: COTS and Open-Source). Utilize scanning tools to identify vulnerabilities in dependencies and outdated software (i.e., software composition analysis). Ensure that vulnerability scanning tools and techniques are employed that facilitate interoperability among tools and automate parts of the vulnerability management process by using standards for: (1) Enumerating platforms, custom software flaws, and improper configurations; (2) Formatting checklists and test procedures; and (3) Measuring vulnerability impact. CM-10(1) | RA-3 | RA-5 | RA-5(11) | RA-5(3) | RA-7 | SA-11 | SA-11(3) | SA-15(7) | SA-3 | SA-4(5) | SA-8 | SA-8(30) | SI-3 | SI-3(10) | SI-7 D3-AI | D3-NM | D3-AVE | D3-NVA | D3-PM | D3-FBA | D3-OSM | D3-SFA | D3-PA | D3-PSA | D3-PLA | D3-PCSV | D3-FA | D3-DA | D3-ID | D3-HD | D3-UA | 6.1.2 | 8.2 | 9.3.2 | A.8.8 | A.8.8 | 6.1.3 | 8.3 | 10.2 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.8.7
CM0012 Software Bill of Materials Generate Software Bill of Materials (SBOM) against the entire software supply chain and cross correlate with known vulnerabilities (e.g., Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures) to mitigate known vulnerabilities. Protect the SBOM according to countermeasures in CM0001. CM-10 | CM-10(1) | CM-11 | CM-11 | CM-11(3) | CM-2 | CM-5(6) | CM-7(4) | CM-7(5) | CM-8 | CM-8(7) | PM-5 | RA-5 | RA-5(11) | SA-10(2) | SA-10(4) | SA-11 | SA-11(3) | SA-3 | SA-4(5) | SA-8 | SA-8(13) | SA-8(29) | SA-8(30) | SA-8(7) | SA-9 | SI-7 D3-AI | D3-AVE | D3-SWI | A.8.9 | A.8.19 | A.8.19 | A.5.9 | A.8.9 | A.5.32 | A.8.19 | A.8.8 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0013 Dependency Confusion Ensure proper protections are in place for ensuring dependency confusion is mitigated like ensuring that internal dependencies be pulled from private repositories vice public repositories, ensuring that your CI/CD/development environment is secure as defined in CM0004 and validate dependency integrity by ensuring checksums match official packages. CM-10(1) | CM-11 | CM-2 | CM-5(6) | RA-5 | SA-11 | SA-3 | SA-8 | SA-8(30) | SA-8(7) | SA-8(9) | SA-9 | SI-7 D3-LFP | D3-UBA | D3-RAPA | D3-MAC | A.8.9 | A.8.19 | A.8.8 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0014 Secure boot Software/Firmware must verify a trust chain that extends through the hardware root of trust, boot loader, boot configuration file, and operating system image, in that order. The trusted boot/RoT computing module should be implemented on radiation tolerant burn-in (non-programmable) equipment.  AC-14 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | SA-8(10) | SA-8(12) | SA-8(13) | SA-8(3) | SA-8(30) | SA-8(4) | SC-51 | SI-7 | SI-7(1) | SI-7(10) | SI-7(9) D3-PH | D3-BA | D3-DLIC | D3-TBI | A.5.8
CM0015 Software Source Control Prohibit the use of binary or machine-executable code from sources with limited or no warranty and without the provision of source code. CM-11 | CM-14 | CM-2 | CM-4 | CM-5(6) | CM-7(8) | SA-10(2) | SA-10(4) | SA-11 | SA-3 | SA-4(5) | SA-4(9) | SA-8 | SA-8(19) | SA-8(29) | SA-8(30) | SA-8(31) | SA-8(7) | SA-9 | SI-7 D3-PM | D3-SBV | D3-EI | D3-EAL | D3- EDL | D3-DCE | A.8.9 | A.8.9 | A.8.19 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0016 CWE List Create prioritized list of software weakness classes (e.g., Common Weakness Enumerations), based on system-specific considerations, to be used during static code analysis for prioritization of static analysis results. RA-5 | SA-11 | SA-11(1) | SA-15(7) | SI-7 D3-AI | D3-AVE | A.8.8 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.8.28
CM0017 Coding Standard Define acceptable coding standards to be used by the software developer. The mission should have automated means to evaluate adherence to coding standards. The coding standard should include the acceptable software development language types as well. The language should consider the security requirements, scalability of the application, the complexity of the application, development budget, development time limit, application security, available resources, etc. The coding standard and language choice must ensure proper security constructs are in place. PL-8 | PL-8(1) | SA-11 | SA-11(3) | SA-15 | SA-3 | SA-4(9) | SA-8 | SA-8(30) | SA-8(7) | SI-7 D3-AI | D3-AVE | D3-SWI | D3-DCE | D3-EHPV | D3-ORA | D3-FEV | D3-FR | D3-ER | D3-PE | D3-PT | D3-PS | A.5.8 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.5.8 | A.8.25
CM0018 Dynamic Analysis Employ dynamic analysis (e.g., using simulation, penetration testing, fuzzing, etc.) to identify software/firmware weaknesses and vulnerabilities in developed and incorporated code (open source, commercial, or third-party developed code). Testing should occur (1) on potential system elements before acceptance; (2) as a realistic simulation of known adversary tactics, techniques, procedures (TTPs), and tools; and (3) throughout the lifecycle on physical and logical systems, elements, and processes. FLATSATs as well as digital twins can be used to perform the dynamic analysis depending on the TTPs being executed. Digital twins via instruction set simulation (i.e., emulation) can provide robust environment for dynamic analysis and TTP execution. CA-8 | CA-8(1) | CA-8(1) | CM-4(2) | CP-4(5) | RA-3 | RA-5(11) | RA-7 | SA-11 | SA-11(3) | SA-11(5) | SA-11(8) | SA-11(9) | SA-3 | SA-8 | SA-8(30) | SC-2(2) | SC-7(29) | SI-3 | SI-3(10) | SI-7 | SR-6(1) | SR-6(1) D3-DA | D3-FBA | D3-PSA | D3-PLA | D3-PA | D3-SEA | D3-MBT | 6.1.2 | 8.2 | 9.3.2 | A.8.8 | 6.1.3 | 8.3 | 10.2 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.8.7
CM0019 Static Analysis Perform static source code analysis for all available source code looking for system-relevant weaknesses (see CM0016) using no less than two static code analysis tools. CM-4(2) | RA-3 | RA-5 | RA-7 | SA-11 | SA-11(1) | SA-11(3) | SA-11(4) | SA-15(7) | SA-3 | SA-8 | SA-8(30) | SI-7 D3-PM | D3-FBA | D3-FEMC | D3-FV | D3-PFV | D3-SFV | D3-OSM | 6.1.2 | 8.2 | 9.3.2 | A.8.8 | A.8.8 | 6.1.3 | 8.3 | 10.2 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | A.8.28
CM0020 Threat modeling Use threat modeling, attack surface analysis, and vulnerability analysis to inform the current development process using analysis from similar systems, components, or services where applicable. Reduce attack surface where possible based on threats. CA-3 | CM-4 | CP-2 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | RA-3 | SA-11 | SA-11(2) | SA-11(3) | SA-11(6) | SA-15(6) | SA-15(8) | SA-2 | SA-3 | SA-4(9) | SA-8 | SA-8(25) | SA-8(30) D3-AI | D3-AVE | D3-SWI | D3-HCI | D3-NM | D3-LLM | D3-ALLM | D3-PLLM | D3-PLM | D3-APLM | D3-PPLM | D3-SYSM | D3-DEM | D3-SVCDM | D3-SYSDM | A.5.14 | A.8.21 | A.8.9 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.2 | A.5.29 | A.8.1 | A.5.8 | 6.1.2 | 8.2 | 9.3.2 | A.8.8 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0021 Software Digital Signature Prevent the installation of Flight Software without verification that the component has been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the mission. AC-14 | CM-11 | CM-11(3) | CM-14 | CM-14 | CM-5(6) | IA-2 | SA-10(1) | SA-11 | SA-4(5) | SA-8(29) | SA-8(31) | SA-9 | SI-7 | SI-7 | SI-7(1) | SI-7(12) | SI-7(15) | SI-7(6) D3-CH | D3-CBAN | D3-FV | D3-DLIC | D3-EAL | D3-SBV | A.8.19 | A.5.16 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.8 | A.5.14 | A.5.22 | A.5.23 | A.8.21 | A.8.29 | A.8.30
CM0022 Criticality Analysis Conduct a criticality analysis to identify mission critical functions, critical components, and data flows and reduce the vulnerability of such functions and components through secure system design. Focus supply chain protection on the most critical components/functions. Leverage other countermeasures like segmentation and least privilege to protect the critical components. CM-4 | CP-2 | CP-2(8) | PL-7 | PL-8 | PL-8(1) | PM-11 | PM-17 | PM-30 | PM-30(1) | PM-32 | RA-3 | RA-3(1) | RA-9 | RA-9 | SA-11 | SA-11(3) | SA-15(3) | SA-2 | SA-3 | SA-4(5) | SA-4(9) | SA-8 | SA-8(25) | SA-8(3) | SA-8(30) | SC-32(1) | SC-7(29) | SR-1 | SR-1 | SR-2 | SR-2(1) | SR-3 | SR-3(2) | SR-3(3) | SR-5(1) | SR-7 D3-AVE | D3-OSM | D3-IDA | D3-SJA | D3-AI | D3-DI | D3-SWI | D3-NNI | D3-HCI | D3-NM | D3-PLM | D3-AM | D3-SYSM | D3-SVCDM | D3-SYSDM | D3-SYSVA | D3-OAM | D3-ORA | A.8.9 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.2 | A.5.29 | A.8.1 | A.5.30 | 8.1 | A.5.8 | A.5.8 | 4.4 | 6.2 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | 10.2 | 6.1.2 | 8.2 | 9.3.2 | A.8.8 | A.5.22 | A.5.2 | A.5.8 | A.8.25 | A.8.31 | A.8.27 | A.8.28 | A.8.29 | A.8.30 | 5.2 | 5.3 | 7.5.1 | 7.5.2 | 7.5.3 | A.5.1 | A.5.2 | A.5.4 | A.5.19 | A.5.31 | A.5.36 | A.5.37 | A.5.19 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.8.30 | A.5.20 | A.5.21 | A.5.22
CM0023 Configuration Management Use automated mechanisms to maintain and validate baseline configuration to ensure the spacecraft's is up-to-date, complete, accurate, and readily available. CM-11(3) | CM-2 | CM-3(4) | CM-3(6) | CM-3(7) | CM-3(8) | CM-4 | CM-5 | CM-5(6) | MA-7 | SA-10 | SA-10(2) | SA-10(7) | SA-11 | SA-3 | SA-4(5) | SA-4(9) | SA-8 | SA-8(29) | SA-8(30) | SA-8(31)